G. Salinas, B. A. Frontana-Uribe, S. Reculusa, P. Garrigue, A. Kuhn
Highly ordered macroporous electrodes of the conducting polymer poly-3,4-ortho-xylendioxythiophene (PXDOT) are presented as a sensitive analytical tool for heavy metal ion quantification due to a controlled gain in electroactive area. They were designed by using colloidal crystal templates. A direct correlation between the final number of porous layers and the deposition charge (Qd) employed for electropolymerization is observed. All the electrodes exhibit a surface-templated structure due to an interaction between the radical cation, formed during the electropolymerization, and the surface groups of the silica beads. The voltamperometric response of the macroporous PXDOT electrodes shows a rather fast electron transfer with ΔEp values between 70 mV and 110 mV. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) analysis of Cu2+ as a representative heavy metal ion shows a linear response in the subppm range. As a model application, the efficient quantification of Cu2+ in a commercial mezcal sample is validated by the standard addition method and the results correlate adequately with the values obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.